《我们害怕》 Shanghai Panic

 

 

我们害怕1

 

《我们害怕》

Shanghai Panic

2001 | 85 min | 程裕苏 Andrew Yusu Cheng

剧情长片 Feature Film

编剧 Screenwriter

程裕苏 Andrew Yusu Cheng

主演 Cast

李智楠 Li Zhinan, 棉棉 Mian Mian

制片人 Producer

程裕苏 Andrew Yusu Cheng

摄影 Cinematographer

程裕苏 Andrew Yusu Cheng

对白语言 Language

上海话 Shanghainese

字幕 Subtitles

英文 English

 

故事梗概 Synopsis

 

故事以2001年的上海为背景,几个来自破碎家庭的20出头的孩子和一个离婚妈妈为对象。没有固定工作和收入的他们流离颠沛,受过创伤的脆弱心灵令他们过早的对生活失去希望。展示几个迷惘青年的动荡生活和他们面临着的个人成长过程中的环境和心灵危机。他们被接踵而至的问题如药物,性取向,艾滋病,色情网站等问题困扰,又在彼此依赖中获取安慰。他们的困惑,徘徊,发泄,恐惧,与城市巨大的幻变身影交织,狂野,迷离。

 

Bei Bei is a young Shanghainese man, a former ballet star, who has had a fever for the better part of a month. He has red spots all over his body and feels run down. Worried that he has contracted HIV, he tells his best friends Kika, Fei Fei and Casper. Frightened, the four spend their time getting high on cheap drugs, hanging out in KTV rooms, and wandering down to the waterfront to ruminate on life and love in the city. As they come to terms with the possibility that Bei Bei may really be sick, the foursome comes closer together, sharing stories of attempted suicide and betrayal. The plot also involves a love story between Bei Bei and his friend Jie. They grew up together and are very confused about their sexual orientation. Bei Bei denies he is gay but at the same time tries to persuade Jie to have sex with him. He is also very threatened by Jie’s sexual interest in girls.

 

导演阐述 Director’s Statement

 

一个人的电影:我用DV表达城市上海

 

《我们害怕》是中国第一部“残酷青春”题材影片。以上海为背景,展示几个迷惘青年的动荡生活和他们面临着的个人成长过程中的心灵危机。他们被接踵而至的问题如药物、性取想、艾滋病、色情网站等问题所困扰,又在彼此依赖中收获安慰。在他们背后,是一座城市巨大的幻变身影。

 

《我们害怕》是一个人的电影:我是作品的制片人、导演、摄影、剪辑、录音及编剧。《我们害怕》又是一起的电影。没有爱、友谊、责任和执着,我们无法完成此片。拍摄时,我无法冷静旁观,居高临下审视调度故事的戏剧性,无法算计出情节、概念或符号来赢得投机。拍摄时,我把摄像机当成我自己。运镜上,我竭力避免不必要的晃动摔动和所谓的流畅。一旦镜头喧宾夺主,必须立即龟缩。一旦龟缩过头,则大胆处理调整, 上海终没在我们手里被再一次强奸成美女飘香满地黄金。

 

In a city where everything is possible, discovering who you are is the wildest ride of all.

《目的地,上海》 Welcome to Destination Shanghai

《目的地,上海》

Welcome to Destination Shanghai

2003 | 87 min |程裕苏 Andrew Yusu Cheng

剧情长片 Feature Film

编剧 Screenwriter

程裕苏 Andrew Yusu Cheng

主演Cast

杨志英Yang Zhiying, 崔子恩 Cui Zi’en, 熊黛琳 Xiong Dailin

制片人 Producer

程裕苏 Andrew Yusu Cheng

摄影 Cinematographer

史岳 Shi Yue

对白语言Language

上海话 Shanghainese

字幕 Subtitles

英文 English

故事梗概 Synopsis

做鸭的长发上海男孩,曾插队落户现在拼命挣钱的中年老鸨,光头变态嫖客,客串临时演员并且开起了性病诊所的下岗女工,伪装成联防队员的杀人歹徒,做妓女的闸北女孩,下岗女工的同性恋丈夫,问路的云南女孩,内向寡言与捡来的小狗为伴的下岗女工的儿子,漂亮的外地女孩,以及她的男友。

 

阿玲和同为知青的老友珍妮弗在马路上遇到,二十年未见,小姑娘变老太婆。互相问候询问近况,阿玲看到珍妮弗装修精良的办公室,感叹自己的不幸,请她帮忙出主意如何赚钱,珍妮弗马上想到阿玲在插队时做过赤脚医生,可以开个性病诊所,修复处女膜。阿玲在珍妮弗点拨下明白并着手开始准备。一个女人依琳去面试做鸡,皮条客又开始一些询问,这次主动提到有客人喜欢处女,希望她做个修补处女膜的手术,顺势把她介绍给阿玲。依琳去了阿玲开的诊所做了手术,开始了接客生意。依琳遇到了一个基友丈夫,他一一询问依琳第一次的细节问题,使其不耐烦,但男客人许诺给以重金,依琳在回去的路上一下子上了黑车,被抢遭人杀人,被抛尸在苏州河畔。一个晚上,神经兮兮的阿玲在苏州河边冒充记者报道沿岸的情况,声情并茂,娓娓道来。在过往记者瘾以后。一个人默默走着,遇到一个问路的云南女孩,女孩问其浦东养鸡场在何处,阿玲详细的告诉她如何坐车去那里,在临了告知他注意安全。反复几次告诫她安全,并坚持要陪云南女孩一起去目的地。被女孩呵斥道,有神经病。阿玲只好作罢一个人回去。阿玲去看了心理医生,伤心的表白自己的悲惨家世,那个窥私依琳第一次的客人是个同志,和几个年轻小伙在饭店吃饭,语言暧昧。勾肩搭背,搂搂抱抱,净显妖娆。原来这个窥私客人是知青阿玲的丈夫,当年她要回上海,照顾生病的父亲,勉强和同志结婚,婚后,同志丈夫过自己的生活,并不操心阿玲和他儿子。阿玲的儿子性格内向,似乎扭曲人格,孤独、阿玲的儿子在外滩结实那个问路的云南女孩,并认她做姐姐,说自己这么大,从未出过上海。云南女孩带着弟弟和男友去了外地江南小镇,路上捡了一只小狗,在客栈里,云南女孩和男友亲热,弟弟独自抱着小狗,小狗天生孱弱,难以维持生命,缝纫机开动起来,阿玲在家里做衣服,儿子在旁边入睡。进入梦乡,睡得香甜,阿玲在窗口望着外面的花朵。

 

A longhaired rent boy from Shanghai, a former sent-down youth who never came back to the city and now works as a middle-aged procuress, a bald and perverted old john, a laid off female worker who operates a VD clinic and works part-time as an actress, the gay husband of the laid off worker and their unassuming son, a murderer in disguise, a Shanghai-born prostitute, a passenger, and a beautiful girl with her boyfriend…

 

导演阐述 Director’s Statement

 

最近无主角电影行起,得益于《通天塔》和《撞车》。《通天塔》的文艺式大热,和布拉得比特有关,《撞车》得益于好来坞的制片发行机制。《目的地,上海》也是无主角,且拍得更早。但没有好来坞概念没有大明星布拉德·皮特垫着,这部电影今年产生基因突变,被香港媒体誉为“得了奖的三级片”。

Recently, films that do not have a fixed protagonist such as Babel and Crash have become more and more popular. Brad Pitt should be credited for the success of Babel, and Crash benefited from the Hollywood studio system. Welcome to Destination Shanghai does not have a fixed protagonist either, but was shot earlier than these other films.

 

 

《浮云》 Zero Thousand Li under the Clouds

浮云海报

 

《浮云》

Zero Thousand Li under the Clouds

2013 | 83 min |程裕苏 Andrew Yusu Cheng

剧情长片 Feature Film

编剧 Screenwriter

程裕苏 Andrew Yusu Cheng

主演 Cast

臧晓玉 Zhang Xiaoyu, 于博宁 Yu Bolin

制片人 Producer

程裕苏 Andrew Yusu Cheng

摄影 Cinematographer

张月宝 Zhang Yuebao

对白语言 Language

中文 Chinese

字幕 Subtitles

英文 English

 

故事梗概 Synopsis

 

影片取材于导演身边的真人真事,由三段构成:女作家是个孤儿,在一次采风中结识了在青海玉树的干妈。干妈是个上海姑娘,解放前考取昆明西南联大,期间爱上了同班藏族同学,毕业后跟随他到玉树,做起了土司夫人,开始了漂泊的人生。为新书积累素材,作家把干妈接到上海,采访她传奇的一生。采访过程中,干妈突然坐化。遗嘱中,干妈吩咐女作家将其遗物,一串红念珠带到玉树,交个她的上师,以此来超度她的灵魂。女作家为了实现干妈的遗愿,踏上了去玉树的路上。

 

大伟被医生告知得了晚期癌症,只能活三个月。为了一个大学毕业时在火车站台上的誓言:彼此在离开这个世界前一定要见一面,大伟踏上了去玉树的路上,寻找在那当了20年乡村教师的同学翔子。

 

小宝从小对外星人和UFO 感兴趣。在北京的后海,小宝遇到了一个神人,那个人说在那里已经等小宝一百多年了,那个人还教了小宝一种宇宙语,说学会了可以直接和外星人交谈。某天晚上,外星人托梦给小宝,告诉小宝只要他来玉树,就可以见到他们,他们会把小宝带离地球。于是小宝离开北京,踏上了去玉树的路上。

 

三人在唐蕃古道上相遇,相知,相离。。。沿途,纯净的天空中,青藏高原美幻绝伦的浮云,一幕一幕地跟随着主人公们,春风化雨般地洗涤着天上和人间。

 

A Shanghai writer raised in an orphanage invites her godmother to her Shanghai home. The godmother was originally from Shanghai but had married a Tibetan classmate and moved with him in the 1950s to Yushu, on the Tibetan Plateau. When the godmother dies unexpectedly in Shanghai, she leaves a will pleading for the writer to bring her prayer beads back to her Tibetan Buddhist teacher in Yushu so that her soul may be freed to heaven.

 

Da Wei lives in Beijing and has been told by his doctor that he has three months to live. He departs for Yushu in search of Xiangzi, a poet and university classmate who had disappeared twenty years earlier, in order to keep the vow he made back then that the two would see each other one last time before leaving this world.

 

Meditating each night, Xiaobao believes he can enter the core of the universe and communicate with aliens. One night, a message is sent to his dreams by an alien stating that only in Yushu would he encounter the UFO that would take him away from Earth and return him to his homeland on another planet. With this message, Xiaobao sets off on the road to Yushu, looking for the UFO and aliens.

 

The three meet and separate on the Tibetan Plateau, a world mirrored by floating clouds that gaze down constantly,illuminating a Zero Thousand Li journey under the moon and sky of Tibet.

 

导演简历 Bio-Filmography of Director

程裕苏(导演、编剧、摄影,学者),荣获多项重要国际电影大奖,中国新生代导演代表人物, 是最早将DV 和RED 4K 电影技术引到中国的人士之一。程裕苏导演,获悉尼大学电影制作硕士;墨尔本大学维多利亚艺术学院电影/视觉人类学博士;北京大学佛学博士(师从佛学和国学泰斗楼宇烈教授)。 2013年,凭艺术成就,获“澳洲总理” 大奖。电影代表作品:2001年完成电影处女作《我们害怕》;2003年完成影片《目的地,上海》;2013年完成《浮云》。

 

重要学术和电影奖项:

2014年作品《浮云》获北京国际电影节“优秀民族影片奖”

2013年程裕苏导演获澳洲“总理大奖”

2012年程裕苏导演获澳洲“罗曼学者” 大奖

2004年作品《目的地,上海》获鹿特丹国际电影节国际影评人大奖

2004年作品《目的地,上海》获欧洲国际艺术电影节最佳影片“金钥匙”奖

2004年作品《目的地,上海》香港国际电影节银摄影机奖

2002年作品《我们害怕》获温哥华国际电影节“龙虎金奖”

 

程裕苏导演,被美国《新闻周刊》、《洛杉矶时报》,英国《环球银幕》、BBC、“四频道”,德国《明镜》周刊,香港《南华早报》誉为:“中国新电影的代表人物。”,电影作品在30多个国际电影节展映。

 

Andrew Yusu Cheng is a filmmaker, script writer and scholar. He holds a PhD in Buddhism from Peking University and a PhD in Film/Visual Anthropology from Melbourne University. His academic awards include the Norman MacGeorge Scholar Award from Melbourne University (2012) and the Prime Minister’s Australia Asia Scholar Award from the Australian government (2013).

 

Filmography:

 

2001 Shanghai Panic

Dragons & Tigers Award, 2002 Vancouver International Film Festival

 

2003 Welcome to Destination Shanghai

Awards: FIPRISCI Award, 2004 Rotterdam International Film Festival

Golden Key Award, 2004 Europe Arts Film Festival

Silver DV Award, 2004 HONG KONG International Film Festival

 

2013, Zero Thousand Li under the Clouds and Moon

Award: Best Ethnic Film, 2014 Beijing International Film Festival

 

Andrew Yusu Cheng’s films have been invited to over 30 film festivals, and have screened at MoMA, Lincoln Centre, Centre Georges Pompidou, and elsewhere.

 

导演阐述 Director’s Statement

 

当素食正在取代鲍鱼,成为宴请的范儿时,电影《浮云》犹如一道赏心悦目的光影素宴,试图给习惯了重油口味的电影观众换个口味。

 

影片深入唐番古道的密境,运用好来坞高科技的IMAX及高速和低速电影拍摄技术,在海拔4500米以上的青藏高原全程拍摄。

 

影片适合那些想上路,或正在路上的驴友;那些没去过西藏,或各种原因去不了西藏的;那些想看青海湖的油菜花,唐番古道的星宿海,德令哈的满月,青藏高原的繁星,玉树的彩云,以及神秘的雍布拉康 – 西藏吐蕃王朝的第一座宫殿,传说中外星人经常出没的地点。

 

影片暗合了当下正在流行和倡导的慢生活方式:找块地方,看部这样的电影,让心慢下来,跟着的影片的主人公归隐到田园,到遥远的玉树,经历一下诗人海子眼中的面朝大海,春暖花开,以及沧海桑田,物我两忘。

 

This is a road movie shot in Yushu, Tibet. It infuses the latest 4K digital film technology with an Eastern philosophical core mentality. The film aims to salute a passing Chinese era when morality had not been replaced by money, poetry and romance were valued, and people did not have to be in Tibet to see a blue sky, a full moon and blossoming flowers.

 

This film is the first episode of my Tibetan trilogy. Aesthetically, it is tailored to the local Tibetan philosophical view that everything has a soul, be it a floating cloud or a human being. This view holds that through a silent gaze, people can communicate with anything: clouds, flowers, lakes, etc.

 

I try to achieve here a cinematic narration not through a linear dramatic construction of incidents, but through keeping the space vacant and the rhythm paced so that a private space can be reserved for the viewer to sense the vibration in terms of their own contexts. A similar approach is often adopted in the traditional Chinese painting style known as liu bai (留白).

 

The film also pays tribute to the 1940s classic Chinese road movie Eight Thousand Li under the Clouds and Moon, which shows scenes of blood, death and turmoil in the breathless darkness of wartime.

 

《交换《双镯》立誓为姐妹夫妻》Exchanging Twin Bracelets as a Vow to Become Sister Spouses

《交换《双镯》立誓为姐妹夫妻》

颜培根

 

Exchanging Twin Bracelets as a Vow to Become Sister Spouses

Bacon Yen

 

黄玉珊是台湾新电影后期由中影征招培养的导演之一,之后转往独立制片的拍片模式,纪录剧情电影都有所涉猎,拍片之余,创办女性影展、南方影展、高雄电影节。黄玉珊的电影中除了对女性自身凝视与所遭遇处境特别关注,浓浓「乡土情怀」与「融合绘画、文学、剧场原素」也成为明显的风格特色。剧情电影方面,黄玉珊从早期女性三部曲《落山风》(1988)、《双镯》(1990)、《牡丹鸟》(1990),而后《真情狂爱》(1998)、《南方纪事之浮世光影》(2005)、《插天山之歌》(2006),带领「南方工作坊」一起完成的《夜夜》(2008),创作历程有超过二十年,在台湾电影圈历经高潮起伏,风霜雨露的多变冷暖下,依然保持着影像的生产,足可见黄玉珊对音像创作的热情及在男性为主制片环境下身为女性的勇敢坚持。

 

《双镯》的题材来自1986年大陆作家陆昭环同名小说,在台湾《联合文学》的「大陆性解放」单元发表,描述福建惠安当地风俗传统、姐妹夫妻、男女地位等,如此「大陆风情」的电影在反共诉求的戒严时期是不能出现的,台海两岸交缠的政治恩怨与国族情仇,就算到了今日,仍轰轰烈烈上演着,大陆对台湾而言,既非本土也非跨国,那游移浮动的模糊地带,是每个台湾人心中最难解的结,由于这样共同的「失根漂流感」,使酷儿/同志在台湾能比其他亚洲国家多了一份宽容与理解。

 

《双镯》中使用不少象征手法,除了以「双镯」来比喻惠花秀姑的感情。也善用「海」的元素,运用在惠花初经来「潮」的场景与最后步入海中而亡的意象(令笔者联想到《时时刻刻》中的吴尔芙)。还有经典的「扇子语法」,不同的动作姿势中惠花间接传递情感给秀姑(令笔者联想到纳粹营里的同性恋情故事《Bent》,当我摸眉毛的时候代表我爱你,这个桥段在《泡泡公寓四人行》里也有再运用)。

 

惠花秀姑两人的姐妹夫妻关系,一共分为五个阶段:第一个阶段,两人刚住在一起时,有点打闹玩的嚷着:「我俩结为姐妹夫妻,生同生,死同死,我中有妳,妳中有我,永不分开。妳不负我,我不负妳。」第二个阶段是在一场共浴的戏中惠花担心秀姑以后有了男人会忘了她,于是秀姑发誓:「上天下地过往的神灵听着,我秀姑要是嫁了人,忘了惠花,天打雷劈,上刀山,下油锅,不得好死。」第三个阶段,秀姑在嫁人前夕,再与惠花严肃立下姐妹誓约,交换镯子,此时惠花的银镯与秀姑的铜镯正式承载两人情感,互为信物(定情之物)。第四个阶段,秀姑要与光哥搬离惠安村时,惠花把铜镯子还给秀姑,要她留给未来出世的惠生,秀姑亦归还银镯,象征两人爱情所属的分离。最后,惠花投海而死,并把两个银镯子留给秀姑,说着:「我愿来生再与妳结为姐妹夫妻,双镯为凭,镯中有我,我中有妳。妈祖娘娘为证,我心中永远、永远有妳。」

 

黄玉珊将惠花与秀姑身体上的亲密关系暗示性地带过,着墨较深的是惠花在镜中看着自己的前后两次画面。在与秀姑共同入浴前,惠花将缠在身上的束带解开,松了一口气却又很讨厌似的丢着,是对传统风俗的反感而出气着。她看着镜中的自己深深一吻(《私颜》、《艳光四射歌舞团》也有如此表现手法)。凝视自身的过程,是对身为女性的认同/矛盾/爱慕;临死前再一次的观望镜中的自己并抚摸着,表达一种对女性自身/肉体/爱情的不舍依恋。

 

美学设计上,笔者特别注意到当两人共浴惠花起身要秀姑立誓时,技巧性的用镜子遮住了身体,而镜子背后正是惠花与秀姑两人的剪影照,在之前惠花观玩着镜中自己时,就可以看到。另外,一幕秀姑与光哥俩人在调侃对方做爱的戏,特别运用卧房建筑结构的设计,从「洞」中看着两人的调情,两人做爱时,把画面由墙上一幅小童子以手指「戳」弥勒佛肚子的特写画面展开,前后的表现手法特别令人遐想。另外当剧中发生某个事件时,利用罗大佑的音乐成功营造紧张又扑朔迷离的情绪,几场黄昏的海景,也流露一种日暮西垂的沧桑。最后梅艳芳主唱的〈似是故人来〉,惠花与秀姑之间的感情余音缭绕在观者心中。

 

笔者对于「传统」也有很深的感触,「重男轻女」的观念「男的是龙,女的是泥」,纵使惠花课业成绩再怎么好过她哥哥,也夺不到重视,而且是由亲身体验过的母亲来传承实行。「白天拳打脚踢,晚上被他压」、「女人被打个两三下算什么」,男尊女卑的封建思想,没有怀孩子一年只能见三次面的规矩,传统加诸在女性身上的枷锁到底有多沉重。美珍偷偷与丈夫见面被捉后喊着:「丈夫想见妻子都不行,这是规矩错,不是我的错。」清楚说出固守传统旧俗不知变通演进的荒谬。

 

Vivian Price(2004)在〈女同志主体在中文电影中的崛起〉一文中,将惠花解读成伴侣关系的T,以她的强势勇敢及一场打蛇的戏来做验证,笔者并不太建议如此的阅读法。在同志文化发展下的次文化,逐渐形成男同志会以「哥」、「弟」,女同志以「T」、「婆」名词来定义自己,这是某种程度的方便但不是绝对,这样的分类朝着异性恋模式建构,但其实酷儿/同志们的世界本身并没有那么僵化。譬如现在越来越流行的「不分」,或是根本「没有分」,我就是爱上了你/妳,为什么要被性别角色再一次困住呢?况且,笔者也不认为,秀姑最后走入婚姻,或是比较温柔就是偏向「婆」的角色。还记得片初秀姑与唱戏的小云,那你来我往的挤眉弄眼含情脉脉,可是比惠花还早进入女女世界的样子。而两人相拥而睡时,也是秀姑「压下」惠花、「搂着」惠花,秀姑给人的感觉反倒多了些成熟稳重,惠花则是小孩子气、任性的感觉较重。笔者想要强调的是,或许同性间的关系并不一定要再分类,两个人互相照顾,个性合得来,不就是很好的关系了吗?

 

黄玉珊也曾在接受采访时,针对男性女性对《双镯》是否为同性恋电影认知不一的问题表示:「我是想要把诠释权交给观众。我在之前拍摄和后来剪接完成时的心情是不一样的:起初我认为是一般东方的姊妹情谊,剪接时我却改变心意,认为结局应该是开放的,观众当然可以从同性恋的角度去看(台大女研社访问、阿绿整理,1993:61)。」笔者倾向朝有同性恋情的角度去看,因为就算是作为过渡的一段旅程,也是生命的一部分,不容否认,但每个人要怎么认知有其诠释的自由。

 

《双镯》在制片公司不希望与同性恋电影沾上边的情况下,仍积极参加女性影展、同志影展,并夺下1992年旧金山同性恋影展观众票选最佳剧情奖,早《喜宴》一步预告了台湾酷儿/同志电影即将在影展发光的实力。虽然在制片公司要求「更戏剧化」一点的调整下,「悲剧化」的女性宿命被强调的有些不自然(美珍、大嫂、惠花的死亡)。但在叙事流畅的铺陈下,黄玉珊成功带领观众领会故事中的重要主题,看见女性的种种存在,不失为一部兼顾商业与艺术的电影作品。

 

《安静的力量——黄玉珊的女性三部曲》The power of quietude: Huang Yu-Shan’s female trilogy

《安静的力量——黄玉珊的女性三部曲》

刘亚玉

 

The power of quietude: Huang Yu-Shan’s female trilogy

Liu Yayu

 

无需置疑,女性导演比男性导演更能揭露女性的生存境遇中赤裸裸残酷真相的一面,黄玉珊的电影坦诚地将女性自身“不完美的真实”呈现在银幕上,而这些弱点转而又成为她们的小宇宙爆发的内在动力。

 

黄玉珊导演的女性三部曲全然抛弃了男性主导的视点,讲述台湾社会变迁中的“她史“。她的第一部影片《落山风》彰显了女性对自身情感、身体的控制权。影片根据汪笨湖的同名小说改编,在佛门禁地上演了一出“不伦恋”,讲述了一个从封建家庭流落到寺院的女性,她用自己的身体反抗来对抗父权的压迫。被封建家庭抛弃的妻子带着不能生育的愧罪感来寺院修行,却在最后意识到自身的完整和男性的不完整,完成了一个自我认同的过程。

 

影片淳朴而唯美地展示了女性的身体,导演让姜受延对着镜子端详自己,试图激发她在镜像中寻找自己内心被压抑的情感和欲望。在性爱场面中,女导演展现出了与男性导演不同的视角,建立了一种女性主导的情爱关系。这种反转的性别关系建立在女性自主身体书写的自觉意识之上,她建构了女性“精神出走”的全新面貌。

 

在《落山风》之后,小说改编加情色曾一度在台湾成为电影票房的保证,其中不乏跟风之作,颇有哗众取宠的意味,很多以“身体解放”为噱头消费女性身体的后起之秀与黄玉珊最初呈现女性身体的初衷相去甚远。资本主义社会的消费意识营造出对幸福身体的共同幻想,而“欲望的身体”被安置进了一个理性结构中。

 

《双镯》根据福建作家陆昭环小说改编,导演将它进行了本土化的融合,描写台湾的原住民惠安女,在已经逐步实现民主化的现代社会,偏远的渔村中女性仍忍受着传统习俗观念的压迫。后来有很多影评解读常常将这部影片当做同性恋电影来做分析,但从黄玉珊导演自己的创作初衷来说,她当时并没有这样主题先行的概念,最初她更加着重于表现姐妹情。然而,导演虽没有女同志理论的主导意识,却在影片中探究出女性同志生成的一种可能性。导演在无意识中,用到了“天生”(by nature)、“后天”(by culture)、“选择”(by choice)三个范畴来界说女性的性取向。

 

影片中透过惠花的视点看到了台湾落后的渔村地区的封建婚姻体制对两性的迫害。在传统的伦理关系中,年轻的女性处于绝对弱势的地位,她被夹在一个紧张的、甚至是相互仇恨的家庭关系中,包括婆媳、夫妻、母女之间的矛盾,而黄玉珊导演将家庭中不可告人的暗面曝露出来,使人惊觉其中隐藏的某种反抗力量。

 

《双镯》的结尾,惠花和丈夫一起到他乡打拼,似乎喻示着女性要进入都市文明才有救赎的可能,这恰好与她的下一部作品《牡丹鸟》产生了内在的衔接。电影《牡丹鸟》中导演用母女两代人的生命经历记录了台湾从农业到工业社会的变迁,这也象征着女性导演的影像中,乡土文化的萎败解体和都市文化的重新建构。故事可分成两段,前半段由女作家陈烨的《黄金之旅》改编而成,后半段则加入导演自己的情感体悟。她突破了以往的线性叙事,用跳跃的时空穿插,从女儿书琴的视点来讲述故事。

 

对于置身于1990年代的台湾女性来说,情感已经不再是她们生活的全部依托,自我追寻则是更重要的议题。女性从封建的乡村制度中踏入工业化的城市,从思想度独立到经济独立,已经彻底摆脱了笼中鸟的命运,即使离开供养的人,依然可以适应社会发展事业独立生存。这部影片延续了“出走的女性”的主题,不同的是,电影《落山风》中女主角是从被动到主动的出走,而《牡丹鸟》中的两位女性从一开始就带着强烈自觉意识。

 

《真情狂爱》更加直面地讲述一位从事色情行业女性的残酷青春和坎坷的生命历程,其中蕴含着更深的社会批判意识和宗教情怀,影片改编自慈济义工陈爱兰的真人真事,导演经历了数年田野调查,将素材反复思索整理成为影片中的故事。

 

这部影片与1980年代后期台湾妇女团体发起的“反对贩卖人口——关怀雏妓”行动有着密不可分的关系,这是台湾的妇女团体第一次集体抗议女性人权被剥夺走上街头抗议。影片对于问题少女、雏妓的生成,从家庭和社会各个层面探究原因,批判了台湾社会中人与人之间的疏离、传统家庭结构的崩溃和教育体制的弊端,阶级分化已经由、家庭、学校延伸到整个社会。导演用一种极其冷静的旁观视点来拍摄,试图充当小兰生活的记录者,拒绝低俗的煽情,也不乏极其写意狂想的段落。

 

黄玉珊导演善于用平静的电影语言中触及着深层的精神冲突,她不断地反思着时间变换所带给人的无序感,试图在随波逐流和标新立异中找寻一种平衡,她在自我的内在抗争中逐渐走向了理性思辨的道路。

 

《真情狂爱》 Spring Cactus

《真情狂爱》

Spring Cactus

1999 | 110 min|黄玉珊 Huang Yu-Shan

剧情长片 Feature Film

编剧 Screenplay

何昕明Shin-Ming Ho, 黄玉珊 Yu-Shan Huang

主演 Cast

贾静雯Jia Jing-Wen, 胡兵 Hu Bing, 林立洋Lin Li- Yang

制片人 Producer

李行 Hsing Lee, 黄陈金鹤 King Ho Huang Chen, 张时坤Shih Hun Chang

制片机构 Production Group

台湾电影文化公司/ 黑巨传播事业股份有限公司Taiwan Film Culture Company/ B & W Film Studio

 

故事梗概 Synopsis

 

《真情狂爱》是导演黄玉珊在拍摄一系列纪录片后,所拍摄的剧情长片。本片由一名已往生的慈济志工陈爱兰的真人真事改编而成,并经过几年的田野调查和反覆思索整理。

 

Spring Cactus is a feature-length work from director Huang Yu-Shan. It was made after she had shot a series of documentary films. The film is based on the true story of a volunteer charity-worker named Chen Ailan and was made after several years of field research and careful thought.

 

《双镯》 Twin Bracelets

雙鐲扇

 

 

 

 

 

《双镯》

Twin Bracelets

1991 | 103 min | 黄玉珊 Huang Yu-Shan

剧情长片 Feature Film

编剧 Screenplay

梁淑华 Suk-Wah Leung

主演 Cast

陈德容 Vivian Chan, 刘小慧Winnie Lau, 郭晋安 Roger Kwok

制片人 Producer

方逸华 Moon Yiu Wah

制作机构 Production Group

香港大都会电影公司 Cosmopolitan Film Productions

 

故事梗概

Synopsis

 

《双镯》叙述在福建惠安从小一起长大的惠花、秀姑的遭遇,惠安盛行童婚制度,结婚三天回娘家,有孕才能终年到夫家长住的陋俗,导致给女子带来的许多悲剧,惠花目睹大嫂及好友美珍先后成为婚俗牺牲者,久而久之,深怕自己也会遭到同样的命运,对婚姻和异性产生恐惧,不自觉将感情倾注在秀姑身上,并互换手镯为盟,结成姐妹夫妻。

 

Twin Bracelets is a story about Hui Hua and Xiu Gu, who have grown up together since childhood in Hui An, Fujian province. Child marriage is very common in Hui An. Girls get married at an early age and return to their natal families three days after the wedding. They are only allowed to live in their husband’s homes if they get pregnant. These practices cause much heartache for the girls. Hui Hua witnesses her sister-in-law and her friend Mei Zhen become the victims of such marriages and fears that she will meet the same fate. Fearing marriage as well as men, she graduallybegins to pour her emotions into her friend Xiu Gu. The girls exchange bracelets and take vows to one another to become sister spouses.

img雙鐲01

 

 

 

 

 

导演简历Bio-Filmography of Director

 

国立政治大学西洋语文系毕业,纽约大学电影研究所硕士,剧情片及纪录片资深编导,现任国立台南艺术大学动画艺术与影像美学研究所副教授。曾任台南艺术大学音像管理所所长兼音像媒体中心主任,黑巨传播公司负责人、导演、监製。近几年代表作品为「南方纪事之浮世光影」、「池东纪事」、「锺肇政文学路」、「插天山之歌」等。黄玉珊导演的作品充分表现出对女性的深切关注,除了电影工作之外,她曾经执导舞台剧、创作小说、剧本,并参与女性影展、南方影展的创办。主要的教学研究领域是影视编导、独立製片与工业、女性电影、纪录片、电影史和评论。

 

Huang Yu-Shan was born in Penghu, grew up in Kaohsiung City, and graduated from the Department of Western Languages and Literature at Cheng-Chi University in 1976. Since then she has worked as editor, scriptwriter, and film critic. In 1982, she earned a master’s degree in Cinema Studies at New York University.

Since returning to Taiwan, Huang has engaged in filmmaking, teaching and writing. At present, she is associate professor at the Graduate Institute of Animation and Film Art of Tainan National University of the Arts. Her areas of research include Asian film, independent filmmaking, and film culture and industry. Founder of Taiwan Women’s Film Festival, her works tend to focus on the lives and experiences of women. Her films also often engage literature and history. Her feature films include Autumn Tempest, Twin Bracelets, Peony Birds, Spring Cactus,The Strait Story, and The Song of Chatian Mountain.

《北京酷儿影展与其政治可能性》The Beijing Queer Film Festival and its political possibilities

《北京酷儿影展与其政治可能性——以其与中国独立电影运动以及性少数人群权利运动的关联为中心》

于宁

 

The Beijing Queer Film Festival and its political possibilities: A look at the link between China’s independent film movement and the movement for the rights of sexual minorities

Yu Ning

 

电影节的历史最早可以追溯到1932年的意大利威尼斯国际电影节。而1977年在美国旧金山举办的旧金山国际同志电影节(Frameline: San Francisco International Lesbian and Gay Film Festival)则被认为是世界上最早的LGBT/酷儿影展。从上世纪80年代末,世界各地开始创办当地的LGBT/酷儿影展,而中国内地唯一一个通过电影放映、交流活动来展开性与性别身份探讨的LGBT/酷儿影展–北京酷儿影展于2001年创办。

 

LGBT/酷儿影展作为基于身份认同(identity)的影展,在世界影展中地位特殊。基于此一特征,历来的关于LGBT/酷儿影展的研究,主要围绕影展与性少数人群的政治、社会运动的关系展开。目前,围绕LGBT/酷儿影展与性少数人群社区/观众的相互形构(mutual formative)关系的研究所占比重较高。近年,围绕与LGBT/酷儿影展的关系,对南希・弗雷泽(Nancy Fraser)所提出的(对抗性)公共领域[(counter) public sphere]概念进行演绎的研究也有所增加。但由于北京酷儿影展的特殊性,以上两个方面的研究,对于北京酷儿影展并不适用。

 

与世界上大部分的LGBT/酷儿影展不同,北京酷儿影展并不是从性少数人群权利运动中发源。北京酷儿影展于2001年12月由北京大学学生社团北大影协创办。北大影协自1999年创办伊始,便致力于中国独立电影在校园内的传播,受到中国首个独立影展、2001年在北京电影学院举办的首届中国独立影像节的启发,北大影协在举办了“运动的视域”2001北京国际“新影像”作品展之后,北京酷儿影展的前身–首届中国同性恋电影节作为北大影协的一次主题放映得到举办。由此看来,北京酷儿影展是作为独立影展被举办,它是从中国独立电影运动中诞生而来。而在它至今十几年的发展过程中,伴随着北京同志社区的发展壮大,同志团体的组织者也加入到北京酷儿影展的组织工作当中,进而北京酷儿影展成为为酷儿群体发声的平台。由此看来,北京酷儿影展是在与中国独立电影运动和性少数人群权利运动这两个运动的关联中发展起来的,这是北京酷儿影展不同于其他LGBT/酷儿影展的独特之处,不容忽视。

 

鉴于北京酷儿影展的这一特点,在笔者看来,影展中产生了基于独立电影运动的独立电影节的政治(the politics of independent film festivals)与基于性少数人群权利运动的身份政治(identity politics)之间的拉锯。在当下的电影政策下,性少数人群主题电影的制作虽然仍受到限制,但随着DV和DVD技术的发展以及互联网的普及,在某种程度上影片的制作和观赏得到了实现。与此对比,由于电影政策禁止独立制作的电影公映,独立电影节遭到强力打压,无法正常举办。所以,围绕性少数人群主题电影,重要的不是“看”的问题,而是“如何看”的问题。正是鉴于此,北京酷儿影展通过坚持影展的形式,确保一个物理空间,即使无法实现正常的影片放映,即使无法获得观众参与,用这个由“电影节”所确保的“公共空间”跟当局对独立电影放映的控制进行对抗。这个“公共空间”不同于一般意义上的(对抗性)公共领域,是独立电影节的政治的最佳体现。这一政治取向与北京独立影像展等其他独立影展相应和。由此,北京酷儿影展远离了社区,没有对社区产生积极的形构。而在影展举办之后所进行的酷儿巡展,则可以看作是基于身份政治的放映,性少数人群观众聚集的放映场所则接近于一般意义上的(对抗性)公共领域。

 

独立电影制作是对主流规范电影制作的对抗,而酷儿(queer)则是在性/别领域中对主流规范的否定。两者都在寻求规范之外的其他可能性。正是由于这种天然的亲近性,北京酷儿影展在远离身份政治,坚持独立电影节的政治的过程中,变得非常“酷儿”,酷儿政治(queer politics)在影展中的出现是笔者对北京酷儿影展政治可能性的预测。

 

 

 

The Beijing Queer Film Festival and its political possibilities: A look at the link between China’s independent film movement and the movement for the rights of sexual minorities

Yu Ning

 

《北京酷儿影展与其政治可能性——以其与中国独立电影运动以及性少数人群权利运动的关联为中心》

于宁

 

International film festivals can trace their roots back to that held in Venice 1932. As for LGBT/Queer film festivals, the San Francisco Frameline International Lesbian and Gay Film Festival of 1977 is widely considered to be the first. Since the late 1980s, such festivals have proliferated around the globe, and the Beijing Queer Film Festival, launched in 2001, set the scene in China, where it has served as a unique forum for showing films and exchanging ideas in the field of gender and gender identity.

 

Across the world, LGBT/Queer film festivals hold a special position on account of being identity- based film festivals. Owing to this, the research into such events has tended to examine the politics and social movements of sexual minorities, much of it focused on the mutually formative relationship between LGBT/Queer film festivals and the sexual minority community and audience. In recent years, researchers have also given increased attention to the relationships between such festivals, and utilized the concept of what Nancy Fraser has termed the counter public sphere. Due to the distinct nature of the Beijing Queer Film Festival, however, research in these two areas is not applicable in its case.

 

Unlike the majority of LGBT/Queer film festivals around the world, the Beijing festival did not grow out of the rights movement of sexual minorities. Rather, it was initiated by the Peking University Student Film Society in December 2001. Founded in 1999, this film society strove from its inception to promote China’s independent cinema on campus and in 2001, inspired by the first Chinese Independent Film Festival held that year at the Beijing Film Academy, it organized its own international showcase for new film works, under the title “Movement in Vision” 2001. On the heels of this event the Society went on to show a festival of gay and lesbian films, the antecedent of the Beijing Queer Film Festival. From this perspective, the Queer Film Festival maybe seen as an independent event born out of China’s independent film movement. In the dozen or so years since that time the development of the festival has been accompanied by the growth of Beijing’s lesbian and gay community, with community organizations joining in its work, and turning it into a platform to air the views of the community. Thus viewed, the Beijing Queer Film Festival grew out of the link between the Chinese independent film movement and the movement for minority sexual rights. This distinguishing feature between the Beijing Queer Film Festival and other LGBT/Queer film festivals should not be overlooked.

 

Because of this, the author believes the Beijing Queer Film Festival has given rise to a seesaw battle between the politics of independent film festivals on the one hand, and the identity politics of the movement for the rights of sexual minorities on the other. Despite the continued restrictions placed on films focused on sexual minorities under current film policy, the production and enjoyment of such films has nevertheless been facilitated up to a point by the development of DV and DVD technology. In contrast, due to the official policy of banning independent films from public venues, independent film festivals have been hit hard, and have not been able to carry on in a normal way. Therefore, the main problem facing films taking sexual minorities as their theme has been the matter of not whether they are seen, but how. It is precisely for this reason that the Beijing Queer Film Festival has persisted in the form of a film festival, ensuring it has a physical space, even if it is one where the normal showing of films is not possible, and where audiences have been unable to participate. It has used this “Public Space” provided by the “Film Festival” to confront the controls placed upon the showing of independent films by the authorities. The “Public Space” referred to here differs from the generally perceived sense of the (confrontational) public space, and is the best display of the politics of the Independent Film Festival. This political orientation coincides with that of the independent film festivals in Beijing and elsewhere. Thus the Beijing Queer Film Festival has kept a distance from the community, and made no positive impact on the formation of the community.

 

Just as Independent film production challenges the paradigms laid down by mainstream film production, so queer represents the negation of mainstream paradigms in gender. Both are searching for possibilities beyond their paradigms, and it is due to this natural proximity that the Beijing Queer Film Festival, by staying removed from identity politics and, persisting with the politics of the independent film festival has become truly “queer”, and the appearance of queer politics within the film festival is what this author perceives to be the political potential of the Beijing Queer Film Festival.

 

[英译: 柯鸿冈 English Translation: Paul Crook]

《酷儿电影与酷儿群体》Queer Movies, Queer Community

《酷儿电影与酷儿群体》

梦之恩

 

Queer Movies, Queer Community

Scott E. Myers

 

2005年12月,当李安的电影《断背山》在美国上映时,保守的基督教右派展开一系列的抗议活动。他们向影院施压,要求影院禁止院线上映此片,并联名请愿,谴责奥斯卡对这部影片的八项提名。甚至支持一名学生向美国教育部提出的诉讼,理由是学生的高中在课堂上放了这部影片。这部电影究竟有什么是让他们如此害怕的?其中部分原由在于他们的信仰(而这个信仰,恐同分子从莫斯科到坎帕拉都有),反同性恋狂热者坚信同性恋电影会诱使人们成为同性恋,特别是儿童。大部分LGBTQ人士认为这纯属无稽之谈,他们坚持认为自己“生来如此”;而这一观点最近又得到了最新的科学证实(和Lady Gaga)的支持。然而,异性恋至上主义者并没有完全错误。作为LGBTQ人群,我们选择自己的酷儿身份和群体,电影则是让这种选择成为可能的一个重要的文化语境。

 

在中国,从上世纪90年代中期到后期,电影中对于酷异性的呈现逐渐出现在不同的年龄层,阶级和民族中。虽然目前对于酷儿艺术的欣赏仍局限于相对少数的固定人群,但是酷儿影像制作和受众群体在城市的增长,对LGBTQ人群文化环境建设起到了助推作用,使得LGBTQ人群懂得尊重和表达多样的非规范性的欲望。北京酷儿影展外地观影资助项目为来自中国不同地区的人们参与该影展活动提供资助。中国酷儿独立影像小组曾经到过国内不同地方和学校,与当地人分享酷儿影片。同志亦凡人创造了一个门户网站,从而多达五亿中国互联网用户者可以有机会看一些无法通过官方渠道收看的同志纪录片。酷儿电影在中国达到了这些里程碑的意义,这不仅在于它让普通人接触到一种娱乐形式或者高雅艺术,更开辟了一条有力渠道使人们可以探索新的生活方式与人际关系的更多可能性并提供新的身份认同语境。

 

中国独立酷儿影像运动出现在改革开放的第二个十年,邓小平“南巡”以后。而今,这场运动承受着来自审查制度、市场经济、恐同心理、对艺术区的非法驱逐和强拆多种压力,以及八九事件遗留对实验艺术家的镇压。因此,酷儿电影是一系列具体历史过往的映射,也是影响并作用于未来的潜在力量。在法律框架下LGBTQ人群(以及部分异性恋者)原来被视为“流氓”的罪名,在90年代初,一些具有同情心并呼吁宽容理解同性恋群体的学者和记者们为流氓罪最终得以废除做出了贡献。然而,这些善意的专家们其中有部分没有自身体验,并没有充分了解中国LGBTQ群体的生活和他们真正面对的压力。酷儿电影从大量的美学、政治和情色的角度出发,运用视觉语言并且触碰情感层面,呈现了一种真实的中国酷儿生活,而这些手段是电影以外的阐述方式无法完全解释的,包括电影评论。

 

当对酷异性的呈现开始在中国的文化领域上逐渐传播开来,摄影机和数码科技的普及使得影像制作逐步民主化。诸如酷儿大学这样的新型文化机构的出现,让影像爱好者有机会接受纪录片制作的培训。北京酷儿影展创办于2001年,当时被称做“中国同性恋电影节”。这个电影节接受放映了所有国内的应征影片,这是一次彻底的媒体民主化实践。与此同时,一些非正式、非官方的渠道,如因特网和独立艺术家网络,不仅对新型科技带来的电影拍摄、字幕制作和发行方式产生深远意义,同时,这些非官方渠道也会分散一部电影如何被定为(或不被定为)“经典”的过程。诚然,“中国酷儿电影”也许是一个名词,但它并不是一个物体。它更像是一个参与的过程,一个社群的中流砥柱,一系列有可能引发激进民主的社会关系,也是一面有助于我们认清自己的镜子,帮助我们建立个人和集体身份。

 

如果说酷儿电影是一面镜子,那么对于我们很多人来讲,刚接触到酷儿电影时所产生的自我认知是痛苦的。1991年托德•海因斯的电影《毒药》(也是我为今年电影节所选的一部影片)中引述了让•热内的一句话,传达了这种痛楚。而这种痛楚并不是出现在我们初次被欲望纠缠的时候(这种欲望本身对我们大部分人来说是很单纯的),而是出现在我们看到这种欲望已经被世界定义的时候,而又不断被这个世界以法律、医学和宗教体系的既定视角解读,而且我们就在这样的框架下被解读。热内写到:“一个孩子出生后拥有了一个名字。突然间,他能看到自己了。他意识到了自己在这个世界上的位置。对于很多人来讲,这种感觉和从母体中降生时一样,是一种恐惧。”

毒药

酷儿电影对这种恐惧提出一种反叙事,这并不是因为它对酷儿生活进行了“正面”描述(通常并不是因为这个原因,这一点从第一届北京酷儿影展的开幕电影《东宫西宫》中就可以看出),而是因为酷儿电影所提出的叙事来源于我们自己的群体。正如我们要重新定义酷儿这个词一样,我们也用酷儿电影来攻击别人对我们所提出的观点;实行这种攻击的武器则植根于爱与愤怒的结合当中。对于我们很多人来讲,拿起这件武器是通向自我认同的重要一步(尽管我们还不知道如何使用它),而这一步反过来也可以转化为行动。恋爱、跟朋友和家人出柜、获得HIV检测、参加文化活动、拍电影、以及组织直接行动,都是世界各地的LGBTQ群体所进行的活动。这不仅是为了改变他们的生活,在某些情况下,也是为了改变他们所生存的社会。

 

第七届北京酷儿影展所展映的影片证明了中国酷儿电影中对社会和美学问题的多样化关注,同时也证明了影展组织者对展示这种多元复杂性的努力。中国酷儿电影在面对这种复杂性的时候非但没有退缩,反而是选择直面它。因为这种包含了身份、经历和欲望的复杂性可以独自成为一种快乐源泉,同时也可以成为个人以及群体的成长基础。在各个层面上酷儿电影都没有义务用某种既定方式去描述酷儿,它只是有责任呈现一种诚实的观点。有些人害怕这种诚实,而我们知道正是这种诚实使得我们能够看清我们是谁。

 

CHI_0824

Scott E. Myers

Queer Cinema, Queer Community

 

梦之恩

酷儿电影与酷儿群体

 

When Ang Lee’s film Brokeback Mountain was released in the United States in December of 2005, the conservative Christian Right in that country launched a series of protests. They pressured theaters not to show the film, sent a petition to The Oscars decrying the film’s eight Academy Award nominations, and even supported a lawsuit against the Board of Education when the movie was shown in a high school classroom. What was it about this film that they so feared? Part of the answer lay in their belief, shared by anti-gay bigots from Moscow to Kampala, that gay movies have the power to make people, especially children, gay. Most LGBTQ people scoff at this idea, holding tightly to the view that we were “born this way” (recent scientific findings as well as Lady Gaga support this view).And yet, the hetero-supremacists are not entirely wrong. As LGBTQ people, we choose our queer identities and communities, and movies are a part of the cultural context that makes this choice possible.

 

In China, cinematic representations of queerness have since the mid- to late-1990s become increasingly accessible to people of different ages, classes and ethnic groups. While viewing queer works of art may be possible only for a relatively small segment of the population, the growth of queer filmmaking and spectatorship in urban areas has helped create a context for LGBTQ people to honor and express a wide range of non-normative desires. The Beijing Queer Film Festival’s scholarship fund has allowed people from different parts of the country to participate in festival events. Members of the China Queer Independent Films group have travelled the country bringing independent films to a number of cities and schools. Queer Comrades has created an independent webcast making it possible for half a billion Chinese Internet-users to view documentary films that cannot be shown through authorized channels. All of these represent milestones in the ability of ordinary people to gain access to something that is not just a form of entertainment or high art—though it can also be these—but is also a powerful avenue for exploring new ways of living, new possibilities for our relationships, and new approaches to understanding who we are.

 

Emerging in the second decade of reform after Deng Xiaoping’s “southern tour,” China’s independent queer cinema movement today faces the multiple and overlapping pressures of censorship, the market economy, queerphobic attitudes, illegal evictions and demolitions of art zones, forced shutdowns of film festivals, and the continuing legacy of the shadow that fell on experimental artists in China after 1989.As such, it is a response to a concrete set of historical circumstances as well as a force with the potential to act on and shape circumstances of the future. A legal framework that defined all LGBTQ people (and some heterosexuals) as “hooligans” was offset from the early 1990s by a handful of sympathetic academics and journalists who advocated for greater understanding of gay people. And yet, these well-meaning specialists often missed the mark when it came to understanding the lives of LGBTQ people and the pressures they faced. Queer cinema offers an authentic take on queer Chinese lives from a great variety of aesthetic, political, and erotic perspectives, employing visual languages and touching affective dimensions that can never be fully accounted for by extra-cinematic modes of representation, including film criticism.

 

Just as representations of queerness have begun to disseminate through China’s cultural landscape, filmmaking itself has become increasingly democratized as camera and digital technologies have become more accessible. New institutions such as Queer University have started giving people with an interest in movies the opportunity to undergo training in documentary filmmaking. The Beijing Queer Film Festival, first launched in 2001 as the “Chinese Homosexual Film Festival,” has instituted a radical practice of media democracy by accepting all domestic films submitted for screening. Meanwhile, informal and non-official channels such as the Internet and independent artist networks have compelling implications not only for the impact of new technology on the way films are produced, subtitled, and distributed, but also for the diffusion and decentralization of the processes by which they are (or are not) established as “classics.” Indeed, “Chinese queer cinema” may be a noun, but it is anything but an object. It is, rather, a process of engagement, an anchor for community, a set of social relations with the potential for radical democracy, and a mirror that helps us see who we are and aid us in the forging of individual and collective identities.

 

If queer cinema acts as a mirror, however, for many of us the first moments of the self-recognition it offers are painful ones. A quote from Jean Genet shown as an intertitle in Todd Haynes’1991filmPoison (the film I chose when asked to select a non-Chinese work for this year’s festival) conveys the sense of pain many of us experienced not when encountering the first stirrings of desire (which were often experienced as pure) but when our eyes were opened to the way in which that desire has been named by a world that continues to interpret it through the lens of the legal, medical, and/or religious frameworks in which we have, in uneven and differing ways, been defined. Genet writes: “A child is born and he is given a name. Suddenly, he can see himself. He recognizes his position in the world. For many, this experience, like that of being born, is one of horror.”

 

Queer cinema offers a counter-narrative to this horror, not because it gives a “positive” depiction of queer life (often it does not, and as an example we may look no further than East Palace, West Palace, the opening film of the Festival’s inaugural year), but because it gives a depiction that is generated from within our own communities. Like our reclaiming of the word queer itself, queer cinema is an assault on narratives about us, with the weapons of that assault being rooted in a combination of anger and love. For many of us, picking up those weapons—even if we are not yet sure how to use them—is an important step toward self-validation, which in turn can lead to action. Falling in love, coming out to friends and family, taking steps to know one’s HIV status, participating in cultural events, making movies, and organizing direct actions are all instances of actions LGBTQ people have taken in different parts of the world, not only to transform their lives, but in some cases to transform the societies in which they live.

 

The films being shown at the 7th Beijing Queer Film Festival attest to the diverse social and aesthetic concerns of Chinese queer filmmakers, as well as to the organizers’ commitment to showcasing this diversity in all of its complexity. Far from recoiling from the challenges of this complexity, Chinese queer cinema embraces it, for complexity—of identities, experiences, desires—can itself be a source of pleasure and a basis for personal and community growth. Queer cinema does not have the responsibility to depict queerness in any particular way; it only has the responsibility to be honest in its perspective. It is this honesty that some people fear, but which we know lets us see who we are.

 

[中译: 吴丹 Chinese Translation: Lydia Wu]

 

《甜蜜18岁》Sweet Eighteen

p1561031589

《甜蜜18岁》

Sweet Eighteen

2012 | 88 min| 何文超 He Wenchao

 

剧情长片Feature Film

 

编剧Screenwriter

何文超 He Wenchao

 

主演 Cast

周文奕Zhou Wenyi, 祁琪 Qi Qi,滕飞 Teng Fei, 郑爽 Zheng Shuang,刘前程 Liu Qiancheng, 杨涛 Yang Tao

 

制片人Producer

魏仲环 Wei Zhonghuan

 

摄影 Cinematographer

徐伟 Xu Wei

 

对白语言 Language

中文 Chinese

 

字幕Subtitles

中英 Chinese, English

 

制作机构Production Group

海南仙寮投资有限公司Hainan Xianliao Investment Co., Ltd.

 

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故事梗概Synopsis

 

何那与母亲张兰相依为命生活在湘江边的一座小城,她很不理解母亲为什么痴迷地爱着一个不靠谱的年轻混混,一天她发现了小混混林果(刘前程饰)的情感秘密便口无遮拦地告诉了母亲,从而导致了一系列的家庭变故。这年夏天,何那和另外两个同是18岁的年轻人夏虹、李聪经历了不同以往的感情和生活,何那终于体味到了感情的伤痛,她的心开始渐渐向母亲靠近……

 

He Na lives with her mother Zhang Lan in a small city on the shore of the Xiangjiang River. She can’t understand why her mother is so madly in love with a young thug named Lin Guo. One day, He Na discovers that Lin Guo is having an affair. When she tells her mother, it triggers a series of sudden changes. Meanwhile that same summer, He Na and two other eighteen-year-olds named Xia Hong and Li Cong have some unusual experiences in love and life. When He Na finally understands the pain of love, her heart becomes closer to her mother…

 

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导演简历Bio-Filmography of Director

 

何文超,1983年出生。毕业于中央戏剧学院电影电视系,导演专业硕士。她曾经在电影《水印街》《花腰新娘》等电影中出演。导演短片作品《下一个》获首届中韩大学生电影节银奖;毕业作品《何小光的夏天》获第七届全球华语大学生影视奖最佳剧情片奖;并入选14届釜山国际电影节广角单元亚洲短片竞赛。《大众DV》年度最佳短片。《甜蜜18岁》是她的首部剧情长片,获国家广电总局电影局剧本扶持基金,入选第15届上海国际电影节亚洲新人奖;第四届澳门国际电影节最佳编剧提名,优秀制片人奖;第11届俄罗斯电影节竞赛单元获最佳处女作提名,20届大学生电影节最佳新人奖,2014年温哥华华语电影节“红枫叶”特别奖。

He Wenchao was born in 1983. She holds a master’s degree from the Film and Television Department of the Central Academy of Drama.

She played a role in the films Trap Street and Huayao Bride in Shangri-La. Funded by a script grant from the State Administration of Radio, Film, and Television, Sweet Eighteen is her first feature length film. It has been nominated for prizes at the 15thShanghai International Film Festival, the 4thMacau International Film Festival (best screenplay and best producer), the 11thRussia Film Festival (best new work), and the 20th College Student Film Festival. It won the Red Maple Special Prize at the Vancouver Chinese Film Festival in 2014.

 

导演阐述Director’s Statement

 

莎士比亚曾经说过“爱的力量是和平,从不顾理性,成规和荣辱,它使一切恐惧,震惊和痛苦在身受时化作甜蜜.”《甜蜜十八岁》想表达的就是,对爱更多一份的理解使你成为了更成熟的你。

 

Shakespeare wrote that the power of love is peace—that love doesn’t care about reason, norms or pride. With love, fear, shock and pain all become sweet. Sweet Eighteentries to express that you can become a more mature person when you have an understanding of love.