策展人的话

《中日两国间的性别少数人群合作可能吗? 》

福永玄弥,关西酷儿影展、关西彩虹游行(2011)

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首先,身为一名酷儿,能以策展人的身份参与到“北京酷儿影展”,我深感荣幸。在这篇短小的寒暄文里,我想就我的中国和日本相关的些许个人体验,来谈一下我对中国和日本两国在性少数人群议题上的交流(的不足)及今后的展望。

说起日本的性少数人群,最先浮现在大家脑海里的会是什么呢? 若是男同志的话,最先想到的或许会是几日前刚刚去世的真崎航(享年29岁),或者是与以他的作品为代表的日本GV相关的话题吧。而事实上,告诉我真崎航去世消息的恰恰是我的中国朋友,而不是日本朋友。

那么除此之外,对于日本的男同志或双性恋男性在学校、职场面临着什么样的问题,在生活中又有着什么样的烦恼、伤痛或快乐,你们了解吗? 关于日本拉拉你们又了解多多少? 还有,在日本,把跨性别人士归类到“性同一性障碍”这一病理化范畴的做法仍是主流,以及主要出现在日本年轻人间的通过自称“X性别”,来试图否定现行的性别机制的努力,种种与日本LGBT相关的情况,大家肯定更是无所耳闻吧。即使是中国的LGBT活动家,对于邻国日本的女权主义或者性少数人群的权利运动在揭发什么样的问题,并如何与之进行斗争,以及运动内部又有怎样的纠葛冲突,对之表示关心的应该也是少之又少吧。或许,对日本的LGBT运动文脉感兴趣的人,在某种意义上恰恰可以说是中国LGBT社群中的“少数族群”吧。

非常遗憾的是,在日本的活动家中也存在着这一相同的现象。

我的恋人,是我三年前在马来西亚遇到的一名中国男同志。在跟他相遇之初,我曾一度想要去酷儿理论的诞生地美国学习LGBT运动和性学研究理论。与之同时,当时的我对中国的女权主义和中国的LGBT问题并没有兴趣。就不在这里惺惺作态,实话实说吧。当时,中国这个国家对我来说是“人权落后国”,我觉得能从中国学到的东西几乎可以说是没有吧。

但是,在与我的中国恋人遭遇了种种习惯差异,沟通错位,并挣扎着去克服超越这些难题的过程中,在某个时刻,无意中,我突然想到,把日本以外的亚洲诸国称之为“落后国”、对之进行蔑视的同时,一味地想要追赶作为“先进国”的欧美各国并想要与之比肩的这一构思,跟附体于从侵华战争到第二次世界大战这一段可以说是日本历史当中最为黑暗的时期的日本人的帝国主义恶灵基本上不是如出一辙、并没有什么改观吗? 那么自然,在没有丝毫意图去对作为邻国的中国进行了解,也并不努力学习中文的情况下,单凭日本媒体的报道就把中国看做是“落后国”这件事情本身不就是一种野蛮的、充满歧视性的做法吗?

或许,当时的我跟别人比起来是无知的,在求知上不求上进的吧。但是,现在日本LGBT活动家的主流形态,是与以欧美为中心的一部分跨国公司合作,把关注点放在如何把活动规模做大上。在这种情况下,对于邻国一直处于不关注甚至漠视的状态。另外,在受美国的运动趋势影响和“粉红经济”崛起的背景下,同性婚姻权的争取和精英男同志的声音开始获得社会关注的同时,性少数人群中的少数,比如“在日韩国人/在日朝鲜人”和没有日本国籍的人、 没有被划分到“性同一性障碍”疾病范畴里的跨性别人士、拉拉(女同志)、在“LGBT”这个范畴里找不到立足之地的“少数族群中的少数族群”、性暴力的受害者以及从事性工作人员,他们的存在被越发地边缘化了。与此同时,受挑起领土民族主义的媒体的偏向报道的影响,日本民众对中国、韩国等近邻国家的印象持续恶化。事实上,即便是在性少数族群,这个因拥有大量深受社会歧视的经验而理应对伴随歧视而来的痛苦最为敏感的族群里面,对中国人和韩国人进行毫无根据的指责批判的人的身影仍不绝于网络。

对于现状的认识,虽然谈的尽是些悲观的事情,但我们中日两国性少数人群社区之间的交流才刚刚开始。去年,在以京都和大阪为据点开展放映活动的“关西酷儿影展”上,放映了记录了“北京酷儿影展”的放映活动历史的纪录片《我们的故事》,导演杨洋作为嘉宾到场。今年,在同志们的支持下,“北京酷儿影展”首次策划了“日本专场”。而且,“关西酷儿影展”的同志和年轻导演也有望来北京助阵。

最后,尽管面临着前面提到的种种困难,我们的“北京酷儿影展”仍然希望能够成为连结中国和日本的性少数人群社区的桥梁。若是要回顾我们两国间的交流史,我们的努力可能只能算是极其微小的一步。但是,通过对我们的先辈们试图在各个方面想要实现的,或未能实现的事情进行思考反省,互通有无,互相学习,偶尔互相进行中正的批评指正,从而能够携手朝着构建一个更好的社会这个目标而共同奋斗的话,我将深感荣幸。

 

 

Minorities in the Queer Communities in China and Japan

Genya Fukunaga:”Kansai Queer Film Festival”, “Kansai Rainbow Parade”(2011)

 

Being the Queer comrade, I am honored to be able to participate in the Beijing Queer Film Festival as a curator for the Japanese section this year. In this short essay, I intend to discuss (the lack of) interactions of the queer communities between China and Japan.

Talking about Japanese queer communities, what would bring to your mind? A gay male would visualize a scene of the super pornography star Ko Masaki who passed away just recently or his gay videos. Actually, the news of his death was brought to me by some Chinese friends.

Then, would you know what sorts of issues Japanese gay or bisexual males encounter at school or in their workplace? How about lesbian females? Or do you know that the pathological category of ‘Gender Identity Disorder(GID)’ has gained popularity more than ‘transgender’ or ‘trans-sexual’ in Japanese society. It might be less known that the category of ‘X-gender’, which means resisting the current gender system, has been adopted especially by young queers in Japan. Even a queer activist would not know what issues feminism and the queer movements have been tackled in the neighboring country. Therefore, It can be said that those who are interested in the Japanese queer communities are regarded as “minorities” in Chinese queer communities.

This kind of indifference to the neighboring countries, regrettable to say, is applied to Japanese activists as well.

When I met my partner, a Chinese gay boy, in Malaysia three years ago, I had been planning to learn the LGBT movements and sexuality studies in America as many of activists and students in Asian countries would do. At the same time, nothing of Chinese feminism and the LGBT movements incited my interest. To tell you the truth, I believed that there would be almost nothing we could learn from China, an underdeveloped country in terms of their human rights. However, getting through some conflicts and miscommunications with my partner, the thought came up to my mind that setting the Western ‘developed’ countries as our target to be achieved in future concurrently with looking down on Asian countries as less-developed is undoubtedly close to the ‘imperialism’ which those previous Japanese people had had during Sino-Japanese war and WWⅡ. Even without knowing Chinese language, what in the world we could discuss about China?

Perhaps, I might be ignorant and intellectually negligent. However, many of the Japanese LGBT activists are now keen to increase the size of their movements cooperating with some Western global companies, not showing their interest in the neighboring countries in Asia. Being affected by movements in America and global “LGBT business”, gay marriage issues and the elite gay male have gained more and more attentions in Japanese society, and less and less attentions are paid to “minorities in the queer communities”- such as lesbian female, ‘Zainichi Korean’, foreigner residing, transgenders who are not categorized in ‘GID’, those who cannot find their identity among ‘LGBT’, survivors of sexual violence, sex workers and so on. Additionally, the trend of growing nationalism and biased media account have greatly affected the young people, resulted in posing a bad impression of China and Korea to them. Therefore, our interaction between China and Japan (even among queer communities) have become more difficult than ever.

It’s true that I might be too pessimistic for the current situation. However, now, our interaction has just started. Last year, our “Kansai Queer Film Festival” (Kyoto and Osaka) showed the film of “Our Story- 10-Year ‘Guerrilla Warfare’ of Beijing Queer Film Festival”, and their talk event with the director, Yang Yang, has been successfully done. This year our Beijing Queer Film Festival is preparing the Japanese section, and a young Japanese director and an activist from Kansai Queer Film Festival are coming to join us.

Regardless of all the troubles above, I believe that our film festival could be a bridge between China and Japan’s queer communities. Even it might be just a little step in whole.

 

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