《北京酷儿影展与其政治可能性》The Beijing Queer Film Festival and its political possibilities

《北京酷儿影展与其政治可能性——以其与中国独立电影运动以及性少数人群权利运动的关联为中心》

于宁

 

The Beijing Queer Film Festival and its political possibilities: A look at the link between China’s independent film movement and the movement for the rights of sexual minorities

Yu Ning

 

电影节的历史最早可以追溯到1932年的意大利威尼斯国际电影节。而1977年在美国旧金山举办的旧金山国际同志电影节(Frameline: San Francisco International Lesbian and Gay Film Festival)则被认为是世界上最早的LGBT/酷儿影展。从上世纪80年代末,世界各地开始创办当地的LGBT/酷儿影展,而中国内地唯一一个通过电影放映、交流活动来展开性与性别身份探讨的LGBT/酷儿影展–北京酷儿影展于2001年创办。

 

LGBT/酷儿影展作为基于身份认同(identity)的影展,在世界影展中地位特殊。基于此一特征,历来的关于LGBT/酷儿影展的研究,主要围绕影展与性少数人群的政治、社会运动的关系展开。目前,围绕LGBT/酷儿影展与性少数人群社区/观众的相互形构(mutual formative)关系的研究所占比重较高。近年,围绕与LGBT/酷儿影展的关系,对南希・弗雷泽(Nancy Fraser)所提出的(对抗性)公共领域[(counter) public sphere]概念进行演绎的研究也有所增加。但由于北京酷儿影展的特殊性,以上两个方面的研究,对于北京酷儿影展并不适用。

 

与世界上大部分的LGBT/酷儿影展不同,北京酷儿影展并不是从性少数人群权利运动中发源。北京酷儿影展于2001年12月由北京大学学生社团北大影协创办。北大影协自1999年创办伊始,便致力于中国独立电影在校园内的传播,受到中国首个独立影展、2001年在北京电影学院举办的首届中国独立影像节的启发,北大影协在举办了“运动的视域”2001北京国际“新影像”作品展之后,北京酷儿影展的前身–首届中国同性恋电影节作为北大影协的一次主题放映得到举办。由此看来,北京酷儿影展是作为独立影展被举办,它是从中国独立电影运动中诞生而来。而在它至今十几年的发展过程中,伴随着北京同志社区的发展壮大,同志团体的组织者也加入到北京酷儿影展的组织工作当中,进而北京酷儿影展成为为酷儿群体发声的平台。由此看来,北京酷儿影展是在与中国独立电影运动和性少数人群权利运动这两个运动的关联中发展起来的,这是北京酷儿影展不同于其他LGBT/酷儿影展的独特之处,不容忽视。

 

鉴于北京酷儿影展的这一特点,在笔者看来,影展中产生了基于独立电影运动的独立电影节的政治(the politics of independent film festivals)与基于性少数人群权利运动的身份政治(identity politics)之间的拉锯。在当下的电影政策下,性少数人群主题电影的制作虽然仍受到限制,但随着DV和DVD技术的发展以及互联网的普及,在某种程度上影片的制作和观赏得到了实现。与此对比,由于电影政策禁止独立制作的电影公映,独立电影节遭到强力打压,无法正常举办。所以,围绕性少数人群主题电影,重要的不是“看”的问题,而是“如何看”的问题。正是鉴于此,北京酷儿影展通过坚持影展的形式,确保一个物理空间,即使无法实现正常的影片放映,即使无法获得观众参与,用这个由“电影节”所确保的“公共空间”跟当局对独立电影放映的控制进行对抗。这个“公共空间”不同于一般意义上的(对抗性)公共领域,是独立电影节的政治的最佳体现。这一政治取向与北京独立影像展等其他独立影展相应和。由此,北京酷儿影展远离了社区,没有对社区产生积极的形构。而在影展举办之后所进行的酷儿巡展,则可以看作是基于身份政治的放映,性少数人群观众聚集的放映场所则接近于一般意义上的(对抗性)公共领域。

 

独立电影制作是对主流规范电影制作的对抗,而酷儿(queer)则是在性/别领域中对主流规范的否定。两者都在寻求规范之外的其他可能性。正是由于这种天然的亲近性,北京酷儿影展在远离身份政治,坚持独立电影节的政治的过程中,变得非常“酷儿”,酷儿政治(queer politics)在影展中的出现是笔者对北京酷儿影展政治可能性的预测。

 

 

 

The Beijing Queer Film Festival and its political possibilities: A look at the link between China’s independent film movement and the movement for the rights of sexual minorities

Yu Ning

 

《北京酷儿影展与其政治可能性——以其与中国独立电影运动以及性少数人群权利运动的关联为中心》

于宁

 

International film festivals can trace their roots back to that held in Venice 1932. As for LGBT/Queer film festivals, the San Francisco Frameline International Lesbian and Gay Film Festival of 1977 is widely considered to be the first. Since the late 1980s, such festivals have proliferated around the globe, and the Beijing Queer Film Festival, launched in 2001, set the scene in China, where it has served as a unique forum for showing films and exchanging ideas in the field of gender and gender identity.

 

Across the world, LGBT/Queer film festivals hold a special position on account of being identity- based film festivals. Owing to this, the research into such events has tended to examine the politics and social movements of sexual minorities, much of it focused on the mutually formative relationship between LGBT/Queer film festivals and the sexual minority community and audience. In recent years, researchers have also given increased attention to the relationships between such festivals, and utilized the concept of what Nancy Fraser has termed the counter public sphere. Due to the distinct nature of the Beijing Queer Film Festival, however, research in these two areas is not applicable in its case.

 

Unlike the majority of LGBT/Queer film festivals around the world, the Beijing festival did not grow out of the rights movement of sexual minorities. Rather, it was initiated by the Peking University Student Film Society in December 2001. Founded in 1999, this film society strove from its inception to promote China’s independent cinema on campus and in 2001, inspired by the first Chinese Independent Film Festival held that year at the Beijing Film Academy, it organized its own international showcase for new film works, under the title “Movement in Vision” 2001. On the heels of this event the Society went on to show a festival of gay and lesbian films, the antecedent of the Beijing Queer Film Festival. From this perspective, the Queer Film Festival maybe seen as an independent event born out of China’s independent film movement. In the dozen or so years since that time the development of the festival has been accompanied by the growth of Beijing’s lesbian and gay community, with community organizations joining in its work, and turning it into a platform to air the views of the community. Thus viewed, the Beijing Queer Film Festival grew out of the link between the Chinese independent film movement and the movement for minority sexual rights. This distinguishing feature between the Beijing Queer Film Festival and other LGBT/Queer film festivals should not be overlooked.

 

Because of this, the author believes the Beijing Queer Film Festival has given rise to a seesaw battle between the politics of independent film festivals on the one hand, and the identity politics of the movement for the rights of sexual minorities on the other. Despite the continued restrictions placed on films focused on sexual minorities under current film policy, the production and enjoyment of such films has nevertheless been facilitated up to a point by the development of DV and DVD technology. In contrast, due to the official policy of banning independent films from public venues, independent film festivals have been hit hard, and have not been able to carry on in a normal way. Therefore, the main problem facing films taking sexual minorities as their theme has been the matter of not whether they are seen, but how. It is precisely for this reason that the Beijing Queer Film Festival has persisted in the form of a film festival, ensuring it has a physical space, even if it is one where the normal showing of films is not possible, and where audiences have been unable to participate. It has used this “Public Space” provided by the “Film Festival” to confront the controls placed upon the showing of independent films by the authorities. The “Public Space” referred to here differs from the generally perceived sense of the (confrontational) public space, and is the best display of the politics of the Independent Film Festival. This political orientation coincides with that of the independent film festivals in Beijing and elsewhere. Thus the Beijing Queer Film Festival has kept a distance from the community, and made no positive impact on the formation of the community.

 

Just as Independent film production challenges the paradigms laid down by mainstream film production, so queer represents the negation of mainstream paradigms in gender. Both are searching for possibilities beyond their paradigms, and it is due to this natural proximity that the Beijing Queer Film Festival, by staying removed from identity politics and, persisting with the politics of the independent film festival has become truly “queer”, and the appearance of queer politics within the film festival is what this author perceives to be the political potential of the Beijing Queer Film Festival.

 

[英译: 柯鸿冈 English Translation: Paul Crook]

《酷儿电影与酷儿群体》Queer Movies, Queer Community

《酷儿电影与酷儿群体》

梦之恩

 

Queer Movies, Queer Community

Scott E. Myers

 

2005年12月,当李安的电影《断背山》在美国上映时,保守的基督教右派展开一系列的抗议活动。他们向影院施压,要求影院禁止院线上映此片,并联名请愿,谴责奥斯卡对这部影片的八项提名。甚至支持一名学生向美国教育部提出的诉讼,理由是学生的高中在课堂上放了这部影片。这部电影究竟有什么是让他们如此害怕的?其中部分原由在于他们的信仰(而这个信仰,恐同分子从莫斯科到坎帕拉都有),反同性恋狂热者坚信同性恋电影会诱使人们成为同性恋,特别是儿童。大部分LGBTQ人士认为这纯属无稽之谈,他们坚持认为自己“生来如此”;而这一观点最近又得到了最新的科学证实(和Lady Gaga)的支持。然而,异性恋至上主义者并没有完全错误。作为LGBTQ人群,我们选择自己的酷儿身份和群体,电影则是让这种选择成为可能的一个重要的文化语境。

 

在中国,从上世纪90年代中期到后期,电影中对于酷异性的呈现逐渐出现在不同的年龄层,阶级和民族中。虽然目前对于酷儿艺术的欣赏仍局限于相对少数的固定人群,但是酷儿影像制作和受众群体在城市的增长,对LGBTQ人群文化环境建设起到了助推作用,使得LGBTQ人群懂得尊重和表达多样的非规范性的欲望。北京酷儿影展外地观影资助项目为来自中国不同地区的人们参与该影展活动提供资助。中国酷儿独立影像小组曾经到过国内不同地方和学校,与当地人分享酷儿影片。同志亦凡人创造了一个门户网站,从而多达五亿中国互联网用户者可以有机会看一些无法通过官方渠道收看的同志纪录片。酷儿电影在中国达到了这些里程碑的意义,这不仅在于它让普通人接触到一种娱乐形式或者高雅艺术,更开辟了一条有力渠道使人们可以探索新的生活方式与人际关系的更多可能性并提供新的身份认同语境。

 

中国独立酷儿影像运动出现在改革开放的第二个十年,邓小平“南巡”以后。而今,这场运动承受着来自审查制度、市场经济、恐同心理、对艺术区的非法驱逐和强拆多种压力,以及八九事件遗留对实验艺术家的镇压。因此,酷儿电影是一系列具体历史过往的映射,也是影响并作用于未来的潜在力量。在法律框架下LGBTQ人群(以及部分异性恋者)原来被视为“流氓”的罪名,在90年代初,一些具有同情心并呼吁宽容理解同性恋群体的学者和记者们为流氓罪最终得以废除做出了贡献。然而,这些善意的专家们其中有部分没有自身体验,并没有充分了解中国LGBTQ群体的生活和他们真正面对的压力。酷儿电影从大量的美学、政治和情色的角度出发,运用视觉语言并且触碰情感层面,呈现了一种真实的中国酷儿生活,而这些手段是电影以外的阐述方式无法完全解释的,包括电影评论。

 

当对酷异性的呈现开始在中国的文化领域上逐渐传播开来,摄影机和数码科技的普及使得影像制作逐步民主化。诸如酷儿大学这样的新型文化机构的出现,让影像爱好者有机会接受纪录片制作的培训。北京酷儿影展创办于2001年,当时被称做“中国同性恋电影节”。这个电影节接受放映了所有国内的应征影片,这是一次彻底的媒体民主化实践。与此同时,一些非正式、非官方的渠道,如因特网和独立艺术家网络,不仅对新型科技带来的电影拍摄、字幕制作和发行方式产生深远意义,同时,这些非官方渠道也会分散一部电影如何被定为(或不被定为)“经典”的过程。诚然,“中国酷儿电影”也许是一个名词,但它并不是一个物体。它更像是一个参与的过程,一个社群的中流砥柱,一系列有可能引发激进民主的社会关系,也是一面有助于我们认清自己的镜子,帮助我们建立个人和集体身份。

 

如果说酷儿电影是一面镜子,那么对于我们很多人来讲,刚接触到酷儿电影时所产生的自我认知是痛苦的。1991年托德•海因斯的电影《毒药》(也是我为今年电影节所选的一部影片)中引述了让•热内的一句话,传达了这种痛楚。而这种痛楚并不是出现在我们初次被欲望纠缠的时候(这种欲望本身对我们大部分人来说是很单纯的),而是出现在我们看到这种欲望已经被世界定义的时候,而又不断被这个世界以法律、医学和宗教体系的既定视角解读,而且我们就在这样的框架下被解读。热内写到:“一个孩子出生后拥有了一个名字。突然间,他能看到自己了。他意识到了自己在这个世界上的位置。对于很多人来讲,这种感觉和从母体中降生时一样,是一种恐惧。”

毒药

酷儿电影对这种恐惧提出一种反叙事,这并不是因为它对酷儿生活进行了“正面”描述(通常并不是因为这个原因,这一点从第一届北京酷儿影展的开幕电影《东宫西宫》中就可以看出),而是因为酷儿电影所提出的叙事来源于我们自己的群体。正如我们要重新定义酷儿这个词一样,我们也用酷儿电影来攻击别人对我们所提出的观点;实行这种攻击的武器则植根于爱与愤怒的结合当中。对于我们很多人来讲,拿起这件武器是通向自我认同的重要一步(尽管我们还不知道如何使用它),而这一步反过来也可以转化为行动。恋爱、跟朋友和家人出柜、获得HIV检测、参加文化活动、拍电影、以及组织直接行动,都是世界各地的LGBTQ群体所进行的活动。这不仅是为了改变他们的生活,在某些情况下,也是为了改变他们所生存的社会。

 

第七届北京酷儿影展所展映的影片证明了中国酷儿电影中对社会和美学问题的多样化关注,同时也证明了影展组织者对展示这种多元复杂性的努力。中国酷儿电影在面对这种复杂性的时候非但没有退缩,反而是选择直面它。因为这种包含了身份、经历和欲望的复杂性可以独自成为一种快乐源泉,同时也可以成为个人以及群体的成长基础。在各个层面上酷儿电影都没有义务用某种既定方式去描述酷儿,它只是有责任呈现一种诚实的观点。有些人害怕这种诚实,而我们知道正是这种诚实使得我们能够看清我们是谁。

 

CHI_0824

Scott E. Myers

Queer Cinema, Queer Community

 

梦之恩

酷儿电影与酷儿群体

 

When Ang Lee’s film Brokeback Mountain was released in the United States in December of 2005, the conservative Christian Right in that country launched a series of protests. They pressured theaters not to show the film, sent a petition to The Oscars decrying the film’s eight Academy Award nominations, and even supported a lawsuit against the Board of Education when the movie was shown in a high school classroom. What was it about this film that they so feared? Part of the answer lay in their belief, shared by anti-gay bigots from Moscow to Kampala, that gay movies have the power to make people, especially children, gay. Most LGBTQ people scoff at this idea, holding tightly to the view that we were “born this way” (recent scientific findings as well as Lady Gaga support this view).And yet, the hetero-supremacists are not entirely wrong. As LGBTQ people, we choose our queer identities and communities, and movies are a part of the cultural context that makes this choice possible.

 

In China, cinematic representations of queerness have since the mid- to late-1990s become increasingly accessible to people of different ages, classes and ethnic groups. While viewing queer works of art may be possible only for a relatively small segment of the population, the growth of queer filmmaking and spectatorship in urban areas has helped create a context for LGBTQ people to honor and express a wide range of non-normative desires. The Beijing Queer Film Festival’s scholarship fund has allowed people from different parts of the country to participate in festival events. Members of the China Queer Independent Films group have travelled the country bringing independent films to a number of cities and schools. Queer Comrades has created an independent webcast making it possible for half a billion Chinese Internet-users to view documentary films that cannot be shown through authorized channels. All of these represent milestones in the ability of ordinary people to gain access to something that is not just a form of entertainment or high art—though it can also be these—but is also a powerful avenue for exploring new ways of living, new possibilities for our relationships, and new approaches to understanding who we are.

 

Emerging in the second decade of reform after Deng Xiaoping’s “southern tour,” China’s independent queer cinema movement today faces the multiple and overlapping pressures of censorship, the market economy, queerphobic attitudes, illegal evictions and demolitions of art zones, forced shutdowns of film festivals, and the continuing legacy of the shadow that fell on experimental artists in China after 1989.As such, it is a response to a concrete set of historical circumstances as well as a force with the potential to act on and shape circumstances of the future. A legal framework that defined all LGBTQ people (and some heterosexuals) as “hooligans” was offset from the early 1990s by a handful of sympathetic academics and journalists who advocated for greater understanding of gay people. And yet, these well-meaning specialists often missed the mark when it came to understanding the lives of LGBTQ people and the pressures they faced. Queer cinema offers an authentic take on queer Chinese lives from a great variety of aesthetic, political, and erotic perspectives, employing visual languages and touching affective dimensions that can never be fully accounted for by extra-cinematic modes of representation, including film criticism.

 

Just as representations of queerness have begun to disseminate through China’s cultural landscape, filmmaking itself has become increasingly democratized as camera and digital technologies have become more accessible. New institutions such as Queer University have started giving people with an interest in movies the opportunity to undergo training in documentary filmmaking. The Beijing Queer Film Festival, first launched in 2001 as the “Chinese Homosexual Film Festival,” has instituted a radical practice of media democracy by accepting all domestic films submitted for screening. Meanwhile, informal and non-official channels such as the Internet and independent artist networks have compelling implications not only for the impact of new technology on the way films are produced, subtitled, and distributed, but also for the diffusion and decentralization of the processes by which they are (or are not) established as “classics.” Indeed, “Chinese queer cinema” may be a noun, but it is anything but an object. It is, rather, a process of engagement, an anchor for community, a set of social relations with the potential for radical democracy, and a mirror that helps us see who we are and aid us in the forging of individual and collective identities.

 

If queer cinema acts as a mirror, however, for many of us the first moments of the self-recognition it offers are painful ones. A quote from Jean Genet shown as an intertitle in Todd Haynes’1991filmPoison (the film I chose when asked to select a non-Chinese work for this year’s festival) conveys the sense of pain many of us experienced not when encountering the first stirrings of desire (which were often experienced as pure) but when our eyes were opened to the way in which that desire has been named by a world that continues to interpret it through the lens of the legal, medical, and/or religious frameworks in which we have, in uneven and differing ways, been defined. Genet writes: “A child is born and he is given a name. Suddenly, he can see himself. He recognizes his position in the world. For many, this experience, like that of being born, is one of horror.”

 

Queer cinema offers a counter-narrative to this horror, not because it gives a “positive” depiction of queer life (often it does not, and as an example we may look no further than East Palace, West Palace, the opening film of the Festival’s inaugural year), but because it gives a depiction that is generated from within our own communities. Like our reclaiming of the word queer itself, queer cinema is an assault on narratives about us, with the weapons of that assault being rooted in a combination of anger and love. For many of us, picking up those weapons—even if we are not yet sure how to use them—is an important step toward self-validation, which in turn can lead to action. Falling in love, coming out to friends and family, taking steps to know one’s HIV status, participating in cultural events, making movies, and organizing direct actions are all instances of actions LGBTQ people have taken in different parts of the world, not only to transform their lives, but in some cases to transform the societies in which they live.

 

The films being shown at the 7th Beijing Queer Film Festival attest to the diverse social and aesthetic concerns of Chinese queer filmmakers, as well as to the organizers’ commitment to showcasing this diversity in all of its complexity. Far from recoiling from the challenges of this complexity, Chinese queer cinema embraces it, for complexity—of identities, experiences, desires—can itself be a source of pleasure and a basis for personal and community growth. Queer cinema does not have the responsibility to depict queerness in any particular way; it only has the responsibility to be honest in its perspective. It is this honesty that some people fear, but which we know lets us see who we are.

 

[中译: 吴丹 Chinese Translation: Lydia Wu]

 

《甜蜜18岁》Sweet Eighteen

p1561031589

《甜蜜18岁》

Sweet Eighteen

2012 | 88 min| 何文超 He Wenchao

 

剧情长片Feature Film

 

编剧Screenwriter

何文超 He Wenchao

 

主演 Cast

周文奕Zhou Wenyi, 祁琪 Qi Qi,滕飞 Teng Fei, 郑爽 Zheng Shuang,刘前程 Liu Qiancheng, 杨涛 Yang Tao

 

制片人Producer

魏仲环 Wei Zhonghuan

 

摄影 Cinematographer

徐伟 Xu Wei

 

对白语言 Language

中文 Chinese

 

字幕Subtitles

中英 Chinese, English

 

制作机构Production Group

海南仙寮投资有限公司Hainan Xianliao Investment Co., Ltd.

 

p1561035596 p1561029659

 

故事梗概Synopsis

 

何那与母亲张兰相依为命生活在湘江边的一座小城,她很不理解母亲为什么痴迷地爱着一个不靠谱的年轻混混,一天她发现了小混混林果(刘前程饰)的情感秘密便口无遮拦地告诉了母亲,从而导致了一系列的家庭变故。这年夏天,何那和另外两个同是18岁的年轻人夏虹、李聪经历了不同以往的感情和生活,何那终于体味到了感情的伤痛,她的心开始渐渐向母亲靠近……

 

He Na lives with her mother Zhang Lan in a small city on the shore of the Xiangjiang River. She can’t understand why her mother is so madly in love with a young thug named Lin Guo. One day, He Na discovers that Lin Guo is having an affair. When she tells her mother, it triggers a series of sudden changes. Meanwhile that same summer, He Na and two other eighteen-year-olds named Xia Hong and Li Cong have some unusual experiences in love and life. When He Na finally understands the pain of love, her heart becomes closer to her mother…

 

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导演简历Bio-Filmography of Director

 

何文超,1983年出生。毕业于中央戏剧学院电影电视系,导演专业硕士。她曾经在电影《水印街》《花腰新娘》等电影中出演。导演短片作品《下一个》获首届中韩大学生电影节银奖;毕业作品《何小光的夏天》获第七届全球华语大学生影视奖最佳剧情片奖;并入选14届釜山国际电影节广角单元亚洲短片竞赛。《大众DV》年度最佳短片。《甜蜜18岁》是她的首部剧情长片,获国家广电总局电影局剧本扶持基金,入选第15届上海国际电影节亚洲新人奖;第四届澳门国际电影节最佳编剧提名,优秀制片人奖;第11届俄罗斯电影节竞赛单元获最佳处女作提名,20届大学生电影节最佳新人奖,2014年温哥华华语电影节“红枫叶”特别奖。

He Wenchao was born in 1983. She holds a master’s degree from the Film and Television Department of the Central Academy of Drama.

She played a role in the films Trap Street and Huayao Bride in Shangri-La. Funded by a script grant from the State Administration of Radio, Film, and Television, Sweet Eighteen is her first feature length film. It has been nominated for prizes at the 15thShanghai International Film Festival, the 4thMacau International Film Festival (best screenplay and best producer), the 11thRussia Film Festival (best new work), and the 20th College Student Film Festival. It won the Red Maple Special Prize at the Vancouver Chinese Film Festival in 2014.

 

导演阐述Director’s Statement

 

莎士比亚曾经说过“爱的力量是和平,从不顾理性,成规和荣辱,它使一切恐惧,震惊和痛苦在身受时化作甜蜜.”《甜蜜十八岁》想表达的就是,对爱更多一份的理解使你成为了更成熟的你。

 

Shakespeare wrote that the power of love is peace—that love doesn’t care about reason, norms or pride. With love, fear, shock and pain all become sweet. Sweet Eighteentries to express that you can become a more mature person when you have an understanding of love.

 

《我们的故事 – 北京酷儿影展十年游击战》Our Story: The Beijing Queer Film Festival’s 10 Years of “Guerrilla Warfare”

our story poster

《我们的故事 – 北京酷儿影展十年游击战》

Our Story: The Beijing Queer Film Festival’s 10 Years of “Guerrilla Warfare”

2011 | 42 min | 杨洋 Yang Yang

 

纪录短片 Short Documentary

 

监制 Supervisors

崔子恩 Cui Zi’en, 范坡坡 Fan Popo, 朱日坤 Zhu Rikun, 李丹 Li Dan, 小刚 Xiaogang, 涂建平Stijn Deklerck

 

摄影Cinematographers

邓建平 Deng Jianping, 马克 Ma Ke, 杨瑾 Yang Jin, 刁丁成 Diao Dingcheng, 小敏 Xiao Min, 周书璇 Zhou Shuxuan

 

剪辑 Editors

邓建平 Deng Jianping, 冯喆 Feng Zhe

 

制作机构Production Group

北京酷儿影展组委会 Beijing Queer Film Festival Organizing Committee

www.bjqff.com

info@bjqff.com, oignon@163.com

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故事简介Synopsis

 

北京酷儿影展2001年缘起于发生在北大的一场由青年学生,知识分子和独立酷儿影人发起的影像运动,到如今已艰难举办了五届。作为中国大陆持续举办历史最久的民间电影活动,它也是该地区目前唯一一个持续通过电影放映、交流活动来展开性与性别身份探讨的主题影展。在并不轻松的国内社会政治环境下,北京酷儿影展历经诸多波折。十年来,迫于各级官方的干预,影展从北京城的西边搬到东边,从城市搬到乡村, 2011年第五届影展又回到城市里,以游击战的方式“成功”举办。本片基于影展组委会多年来纪录并收集的现场影像、图片资料,通过当事人自己的讲述,将影展背后不为人知的我们的故事对世人娓娓道来。

 

This documentary tells the story of the 10-year “guerrilla warfare” waged by the Beijing Queer Film Festival (BJQFF). Originating at Peking University in 2001, the Festival has taken place six—now seven—times to date. Considered the first of its kind, the BJQFF is the only continuous, community-based non-governmental film festival with a special focus on gender and sexuality in China. Given the politically sensitive nature of LGBTQ issues in China, as well as China’s strict media censorship, the Festival has encountered enormous difficulties in its development. In the past thirteen years, its venue has shifted from the western suburbs to the eastern, and from city to countryside. In 2011 it returned to the city and embraced a true guerrilla strategy due to government intervention and censorship. Based on recorded footage collected by the BJQFF organizing committee each year, Our Story contains interviews with committee members, letting them tell the story of the festival and of themselves.

 

 

《奇缘一生》Our Marriages: When Lesbians Marry Gay Men

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《奇缘一生》

Our Marriages: When Lesbians Marry Gay Men

2012 | 82 min | 何小培He Xiaopei, 袁园 Yuan Yuan

 

纪录长片 Feature Documentary

 

编剧 Screenwriter

何小培He Xiaopei, 袁园 Yuan Yuan

 

主演 Cast

小熊 Xiao Xiong, 静静 Jing Jing, 可乐 Ke Le, 姗姗 Shan Shan

 

摄影 Cinematographers

袁园Yuan Yuan,何小培 He Xiaopei

 

对白语言 Language

中文 Chinese

 

字幕 Subtitles

中英 Chinese, English

 

制作机构Production Group

粉色空间 Pink Space

故事梗概Synopsis

 

同性恋在不同的文化背景下,有着不同的生活方式。在中国,由于家庭与社会传统有着很强婚姻的压力,许多女男同性恋者采取了非同寻常的形式婚姻的方式来化解压力。她们共同协商,达成详细的婚姻协议,举办婚礼,在外界的眼里他们似乎过着与异性恋一样的生活。

 

女同性恋者是怎样协商以实现自已即要作女同性恋者,又要作孝女的双重身份?形式婚姻是如何运作的?双方又是怎样把婚姻的责任、义务分配和担当起来的?‘奇缘一生’在两年的时间里,跟随四位住在东北沈阳的女同性恋者,参与她们的协商、参加她们的婚礼,纪录下她们的生活与问题。电影对中国现代社会的婚姻制度和异性恋生活方式提出了重要的问题和反思。

 

Same-sex love takes different forms in different cultures and times. In China, as the pressure to marry continues to be a central component of traditional family culture, some lesbians and gay men have adopted an unusual arrangement to alleviate this burden. A number of mutually consenting lesbians and gay men have entered into agreements that allow them to adopt a form of contract marriage with detailed terms and conditions of marriage and married life. They then hold weddings for the sake of their families and proceed to live as “normal” heterosexual couples.

 

How do lesbians negotiate their lives as both lesbians and filial daughters? How are these contract marriages arranged? And how does a contract couple navigate the complicated duties and obligations of married life?  Our Marriages: Lesbians Marry Gay Men follows the negotiations, weddings, and lives of four lesbians for two years in a large city in northeast China, documenting their strategies and the issues they face. The film raises important questions and reflections about the institution of marriage as well as lesbian and gay life in contemporary Chinese society.

 

导演简历Bio-Filmography of Directors

 

何小培

青少年时在松山龙庆峡当羊倌,踏遍青山绿水。大学毕业后参加中国登山队,冲击南迦巴瓦峰。南峰失败后入驻中南海,做公务员十四年,研究经济改革。世界妇女大会前后,投身女权和同志运动。后赴英国攻读硕士、博士,专业:文化研究。回国后创建民间组织——粉色空间,倡导性权利,利用影像表达被压制的欲望和声音。

 

He Xiaopei

Living in the mountains as a teenager trained me to be a professional shepherd, and the Himalayas turned me into a full time mountaineer. A government job made me an economist while the women’s movement and immersion in gender studies converted me to become a feminist. Participating in LBGTQ organizing in China helped me to realize there are many people—especially people with disabilities, HIV-positive women, bisexual women, and sex workers—who are oppressed because of their gender and sexuality. This is why I set up the Pink Space Sexuality Research Centre and continue to promote sexual rights, including sexual pleasure, among people who are oppressed.

 

袁园

毕业于北京电影学院图片摄影专业,独立纪录片导演,从2004年开始参与非政府机构与影像有关的项目,并参与创办倡导性少数权利的NGO粉色空间(2007),创作和策划了一系列的摄影作品,包括《北京前门同性伴侣结婚行为摄影》(2009),平遥国际摄影大展《山女晋娃农村感染艾滋病妇女和儿童作品联展》(2011),《At This Moment, I Want to Be》(2013)获得荷兰“国际骄傲摄影奖”的特别奖。从2008年开始独立纪录片的创作,主要作品有《宠儿》,26分钟;《奇缘一生》,81分钟。

 

Yuan Yuan

Yuan Yuan is an independent documentary filmmaker who graduated from the Beijing Film Academy. A founding member of Pink Space Sexuality Research Centre, her works include Same-Sex Couples Take Wedding Photos at Qianmen (2009), a photo exhibition of rural HIV-positive women and children at the Pingyao International Photography Festival (2011), At This Moment, I Want to Be (2013; Special Mention at the 2013 Pride Photo Award), and the films The Lucky One and Our Marriages:When Lesbians Marry Gay Men.

 

导演阐述Directors’ Statement

 

形式婚姻遭遇了很多歧视与偏见。有的说她们是同性恋就应该出柜好好当同性恋,有的说她们不该‘欺骗’父母亲;还有的说她们是向父权制的婚姻霸权屈服。而很少有当事人对形婚讲述她们的经历、态度、做法和背后的故事。我们跟随了四位女同性恋者两年的时间,听她们对形婚的看法、看她们形婚的做法,纪录她们普通的生活和特别的婚礼,理解其中的简单和深奥的道理。由于社会家庭传统观念而产生。

 

There is a lot of discrimination against people who enter into contract marriages. Some say that women who are lesbians should come out as lesbian; some say they should not “deceive” their parents; others say having a contract marriage is surrendering to patriarchal institutions. But what do people who actually have contract marriages say? We need to hear people who are in contract marriages tell their own stories. We need to hear from them about their experiences and their family backgrounds. We followed four lesbians for two years, heard their stories, and recorded their ordinary lives and extraordinary weddings in order to understand the simple but profound reasons for contract marriages.

致辞 Preface

北京酷儿影展今年第7届了。在大环境日趋收紧,民间影展寒冬不知何时过去的当下,北京酷儿影展很骄傲地发生了两个重要的进化,一个是双主席制,一个是由双年展改为单年展。

双主席制自然是北京酷儿影展人丁兴盛的外在体现,团队日益茁壮,自影展2001年创办起,团队中既有电影人把握入围影片的专业水准,也有NGO贡献消除社会对同性恋歧视方面的经验,二者的跨界合作,使得北京酷儿影展不只是中国唯一的、高质量的酷儿影展,也是中国同志平权运动中重要的角色之一。

单年展的实行,不只是影展周期的简单缩短而已,也不只是侧面印证了中国酷儿电影越来越兴盛活跃,更重要的是,酷儿影展的观众群已经不只是酷儿,不再只是圈内的狂欢,我们信心满满地向所谓的主流观众进军了。纵观一百年来全世界反歧视运动的历史,女权运动的成功,在于男性“主流”意识到性别歧视的错误;美国黑人民权运动的成功,在于马丁路德金成功争取到白人“主流”的支持;南非种族隔离制度的废除,更是整个世界的“主流”都站在南非黑人这一边。所以,固然天助自助者,作为受到歧视的中国酷儿要自我赋权,同时争取中国“主流”民众的支持,也是整个平权运动中决定性的一环。电影是影响思想的利器,我们听过很多这样的故事,费城故事、断背山、霸王别姬……改变了观众对同志的成见,所以北京酷儿影展所担负的一项责任,就是“直同交流”,让酷儿电影更加频繁地出现在尽可能多的“主流”公众眼前,并通过一年一度的影展,增加酷儿电影在主流媒体的曝光度。

前面谈的都是北京酷儿影展对同志平权与酷儿文化的意义,如果我是直人,不歧视甚至完全不关心酷儿的存在,那么酷儿影展对于我有什么意义呢?我们每个人都希望生活在一个文化富足的国家,那才是幸福的一生。而现在的中国却是经济在天上飞,文化在地上爬。文化发展的必要条件在于多元,北京酷儿影展的存在就是为了中国文化的多元化而坚持,是为数不多的种子之一,为了我们有一个文化富足的明天,我们相信那一天终将到来!

感谢所有支持北京酷儿影展的朋友们,正是你们的支持使北京酷儿影展虽然艰辛但坚强地发展至今。

第7届北京酷儿影展轮值主席

吴漫  李丹

2014年9月

 

Preface 致辞

The 7th Beijing Queer Film Festival is taking place and moving forward. In the midst of an increasingly restrictive and uncertain environment for independent film, the Beijing Queer Film Festival is proud to announce two important developments: the introduction of a Co-Director system and the shift from a biennial to an annual festival.

The introduction of a co-directorship, of course, is a reflection of the team behind the festival. Since the festival’s conception in 2001, the team has been comprised of both filmmakers who ensure a professional standard in film selection and NGOs dedicated to eliminating discrimination against LGBTQ people. This collaboration means that the Beijing Queer Film Festival is a unique film festival with high standards that also plays an important role in China’s LGBTQ rights movement.

The switch to an annual festival does not simply shorten the cycle of the festival, nor does it just confirm the growth of activity and achievements in the realm of Chinese Queer Film. Importantly, the Beijing Queer Film Festival is not only for queer people, but also engages confidently with a “mainstream” audience. Internationally in the last hundred years, the success of the feminist movement relied on a realization among the mainstreamworld that gender discrimination is wrong. In the African-American Civil Rights movement, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. successfully fought for mainstream support from both whites and blacks. For the abolition of apartheid in South Africa, the entire world became the “mainstream” standing in solidarity with black South Africans. Thus, while self-empowerment is essential to fighting discrimination, gaining the support of broad segments of Chinese people is a crucial part of the LGBTQ rights movement. Film is powerful a tool to change hearts and minds. We have seen this with films such as Philadelphia, Brokeback Mountain, and Farewell my Concubine; these are films that have transformed audience’s preconceptions. With this in mind, the Beijing Queer Film Festival aims to expose mainstream audiences to queer themes, and will increase the presence of queer cinema in the mainstream media.

So far we have discussed the significance of LGBTQ rights and culture. But if I am straight, and I neither discriminate against queer people nor have any particular interest in them, what purpose could this film festival have for me?  Each of us hopes to live in a culturally rich country; this is key to leading a happy life. In the present moment, China’s economy is flying sky-high, but its culture is crawling on the ground. Diversity is a necessary precondition for cultural development, and the Beijing Queer Film Festival exists to uphold China’s diversity and to plant the seeds necessary for a culturally rich tomorrow. We believe that this day will come.

We would like to thank all those who support the Beijing Queer Film Festival. It is your continued support that has enabled the festival to overcome difficulties and progress this far.

 

Jenny Man Wu & Li Dan

Co-Directors, 7th Beijing Queer Film Festival

September 2014

[英译 English Translation: Lucy Edwards]